The study, which highlighted the author’s unique access to unauthorized laborers, also identified the six largest labor sectors where unauthorized workers find jobs: agriculture, construction, landscaping, janitorial/cleaning services/ food processing, and manufacturing. The three industries with the most violations were construction, food processing and janitorial/cleaning.
In general, violations and abuses inflicted during transportation were far less common than those inflicted by employers at the workplace. Of those who traveled with migrant smugglers, 6 percent reported experiencing violations compared to 28 percent who reported violations in the workplace. Examples of violations and abuses included laborers who were forbidden to leave, whose ID was confiscated, who were forbidden to contact family member and who were subjected to physical and sexual violence.
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SOURCE Office of Justice Programs